Denisoff, Serge, and Mark Levine. “Generations and Counter-Culture:’A Study in the Ideology of Music’ .” Youth and Society. 2.1 (1970): 33-58. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Rosenstone, Robert. “‘The Times They Are A-Changin’:The Music of Protest.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 382.Mar. 1969 (1969): 131-144. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

Interview with Professor Grace Hale, University of Virginia History Department Professor. November 13, 2011.

Question: You mentioned the idea of perpetuating inequalities, would you say the youth rebellion helped or hindered the progress toward equality?

Answer: The youth rebellion “helped in terms of racial and gender and sexual inequality but not in terms of class” (Hale Interview)

“The audience could evoke, at least temporarily, a simple world where black and white, the old and the new, the people left out of the present and the people alienated from it and looking to the past, can come together, where people can clasp hands and sing and conjure integration” (Hale 86).

Question: Along the blurring of the racial lines, do you think the new genres of music helped to diversify the audience or diversify the racial make up of the popular artists?

Answer: “Both” (Hale Interview)

Question: What does it mean to be an outsider and why was it so appealing?

Answer: “Americans increasingly fell in love with… musicians like Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan… these emotions enabled some middle-class whites to cut free of their own histories and identify with those who, while lacking economic, political, or social privilege, seemed to possess instead vital cultural resources and a depth of feeling not found in ‘gray flannel’ America” (Hale Book Abstract).

Question: What one moment stands out as the point when the youth counterculture made their presence known?

Answer: “Woodstock and Altamount” (Hale Interview)

Question: Would you say the music was the cause of the movement or in response to it?

Answer: “Both” (Hale Interview)

Question: Why was it important that the counterculture was made up of white middle class youths, who already had it made by some people’s standards?

Answer: “…think about the difference class makes in both politics and culture” (Hale Interview)

“The folk music revival gave middle-class musicians and fans, however, a way to change themselves. Playing and listening to folk music, they rebelled against the culture they had been given and found their own means of self-expression” (Hale 104).

Question: You mentioned the idea that the rebellion was against mass culture – which is usually determined by the media – what was the response of the media to the rebellion?

Answer: There was “huge coverage of it… spread word to people everywhere in the nation” (Hale Interview).

“Middle-class whites… learned to use mass culture – understood as the American way of life and as their culture- to critique mass culture” (Hale 6).

Question: What, if anything, would you say is the legacy of the rebellion? Has it had any lasting affects on our culture?

Answer: “By the end of the twentieth century, the popularity of outsiders and rebels among white middle-class Americans made finding the edge, the boundary where outside began and inside ceased, increasingly difficult. The romance of the outsider works… because it enables Americans with political and economic power to disavow that power… the time has come to make a new romance” (Hale 307-08).

Answers were taken from her book “A Nation of Outsiders” as well as from an interview via email.